Common Terpenes Found Within Hemp

by Sue Carlton November 01, 2018

a-Pinene: C10H16-Formula: Monoterpene

a-Pinene produces a pine-like aroma and can be found in conifer trees, orange peels along with other plants.   It is used to treat asthma and reduce inflammation. It reacts with other terpenes and reacts physiologically within plants, animals and our environment.

Limonene: C10H16-Formula: Cyclic Terpene

Limonene or D-limonene has a citrus odor and bitter taste.  You can find this in fruits like oranges and lemons along with other plants.   It provides anti-fungal, anti-depressant, anti-anxiety, anti-tumor properties. It is commonly used to treat gastric reflux and provides itself as an immunostimulant.  Limonene has many functions including helping with absorption of other terpenoids and chemicals through the skin, mucous membranes and digestion.

B-Caryophyllene: C15H24-Formula: Sesquiterpene

Beta-caryophyllene is found in Thai basil, clove, black pepper, and many plants.  Its odor is spicy. Beta-caryophyllene is known to bond with the CB2 cannabinoid receptor.  It is known to be antiseptic, antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory.  

B-Myrcene: C10H16-Formula: Monoterpene: Precursor For Terpenes

B-Myrcene can be found in fresh mango fruit, hops, bay leaves, eucalyptus, lemongrass, and other plants.   Mycerene produces musky odors B-Myrcene have anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, spasm reduction, sleep aid, and pain relief.   Strains like Indica are common for producing the “couch locked effect”. When B-Myrcene levels when they are above a 0.5% level in Indica they are shown to have this property whereas most Sativa strains have less than 0.5% levels of B-Myrcene and do not produce this effect.  The reason why B-Myrcene is an important monoterpene is that it increases the CB1 receptor saturation level, allowing for an increased psychoactive effect. It is said that for best results consume upwards of 45 minutes before consuming cannabis to activate this effect.

Linalool: C10H180-Formula: Simple Terpene

Linalool is also known as B-linalool, licareol, and linalyl alcohol.  Linalool can be found in common herbs and plants such as the lavender genesis, citrus, laurels, birch, coriander, and rosewood.   It produces a “pleasant floral odor.” Linalool along with cannabis has been used throughout the history of herbal or apothecary medicine.  It helps as a; sleep aid, treatment of both psychosis and anxiety, an antiepileptic agent, relief from pain and is an analgesic.


Terpinolene: C10H16-Formula: Monoterpene (part of the terpinolene subfamily of terpenes)

Terpinolene can be found in marjoram, cumin, lilac, some citrus rind, and oregano   It helps as a; antioxidant, immune modulating, anti-biologically (anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, and anti-fungal) and sleep aid.  


Phytol: C20H400: Diterpene Alcohol: Plastidial Terpenoid

Phytol can be found in most vegetables since most organisms are dependent on photosynthesis by use of chlorophyll.  Phytol is a carbon side-chain of a chlorophyll molecule. When this molecule breaks down it produces two parts, the part we will focus on is Phytol which is an oily diterpene.   Phytol helps with the synthesis of vitamin E and K. Phytol produces antioxidant properties.

Citronellol: C10H200-Formula: Monoterpenoid

Citronellol is commonly found in roses, some citrus rind, and geraniums.  The properties professed by citronellol are anti-biological, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory and helps regulate the immune system.  


Caryophyllene-Oxide: C15H240-Formula: Oxidation Product of Beta-Caryophyllene.

Caryophyllene is known to having antioxidant properties that help prevent fungus and tumors.  Caryophyllene can be found in feces and saliva. Caryophyllene improves the uptake of CBD/CBC in the CB2 receptor.   

 

Humule: C15H24-Formula: Sesquiterpene

Humule is also known as a-humulene and a-caryophyllene and is an isomer of B-caryophyllene.  This can be found in hops, Cannabis Sativa strains, Vietnamese coriander, and other plants. It is what produces the hoppy aroma within the beer.   Humule has antitumor, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and is found to be anorectic (suppresses appetite).

FDA Disclaimer 
The statements made regarding these products have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The efficacy of these products has not been confirmed by FDA-approved research. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. All information presented here is not meant as a substitute for or alternative to information from healthcare practitioners. Please consult your healthcare professional about potential interactions or other possible complications before using any product. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act require this notice.

Work Cited

Booth, Judith K., Jonathan E. Page, and Jörg Bohlmann. “Terpene Synthases from Cannabis Sativa.” Ed. Björn Hamberger. PLoS ONE 12.3 (2017): e0173911. PMC. Web. 21 May 2018.

Interactive, Devise. “Steep Hill | Global Leader in Cannabis Testing and Analytics.” Steep Hill Labs, http://www.steephill.com/science/terpenes.

Massimino, Luca. “ In Silico Discovery of Terpenoid Metabolism in Cannabis Sativa .” F1000Research 6 (2017): 107. PMC. Web. 21 May 2018.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=6549, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/6549 (accessed Nov. 2, 2018).

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=31253, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/31253 (accessed Nov. 2, 2018).

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID=5281515, https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/5281515 (accessed Nov. 2, 2018).